- Social and health insurance:
Social security contributions are paid in Bulgaria when employment is performed (social security contributions). Or on the basis of Bulgarian citizenship (health contributions).
Social security contributions
The performance of work is the basis for incurring an obligation to pay social security contributions: Social security contributions include contributions to the Social Insurance Institution (State Social Insurance) and the Supplementary Compulsory Pension Insurance (SSPI). Social security contributions cover short-term benefits (sickness, maternity, unemployment, occupational accidents, occupational diseases, etc.) and pensions. Contributions to the Universal Pension Fund (UPF) give the right to a second pension, which supplements the state pension from the Social Security. And contributions to the PPF (Occupational Pension Fund) to a temporary occupational early retirement pension for those who worked in harmful working conditions (first and second category). The insured persons (employees, management contracts, elected positions, self-employed persons, civil contracts, etc.), the insurance income, the amount of contributions, the periods of insurance and the acquisition of insurance rights are defined in the CSR.
All Bulgarian citizens are compulsorily insured with the NHIF (National Health Insurance Fund). Health insurance contributions are paid by the employer, the self-employed person or are charged to the state budget (for persons up to 18 years of age, pensioners from the Social Insurance Fund, students up to 26 years of age, persons with unemployment benefit or social assistance entitlement, etc.). Unemployed persons without entitlement to benefit pay health contributions at their own expense. When abroad, Bulgarian citizens may be exempted from paying health contributions in Bulgaria under certain conditions. Some foreign nationals are also compulsorily insured with the NHIF. If a permanent or long-term residence permit is obtained in Bulgaria. Persons who are compulsorily insured in the NHIF, the health insurance income, the amount of health insurance contributions, the formation of the health status and the right to health care are defined in the Health Insurance Act (HIA).
2. Youth Advisory Council of the municipality:
The Advisory Youth Council is the result of the practical implementation of the Revised European Charter on the Participation of Young People in the Life of Municipalities and Regions, the National Youth Policy Strategy and the Municipal Youth Work Strategy. It brings together representatives of youth organisations and informal groups representing the different interest segments concerning youth, but not only. All local institutions involved in youth policies are also involved.
3. Lobbying (advocacy):
Lobbying and advocacy are two concepts related to the influence and efforts of groups or individuals to influence legislation, public opinion or decision-making in a particular area. Although these terms are similar, they have some nuances in their meanings.
Lobbying is the process by which representatives of interest groups, organizations, or businesses use their resources and influence to influence legislation, policies, or decisions of governmental bodies in the interests of those groups. Lobbyists work to present their views, arguments and interests to legislators or decision-makers in order to change or create legislation that meets their needs or objectives.
Advocacy refers to the activities of groups, individuals or organisations that engage in defending particular principles, interests or rights, often on behalf of a wider community or those who may not be able to effectively defend themselves. Advocates work to make or raise their voices in support of a cause or issue, often with the goal of persuading the public, legislators, or other important stakeholders.
Although lobbying and advocacy can be used for different purposes and situations, they are often associated with efforts to influence public or government decisions in favor of particular interests or principles.
4. Authoritarian governance:
An authoritarian system of government is a political system in which power is concentrated in the hands of one or a few leaders, lacking broad citizen participation in the decision-making process. This type of regime is characterised by restrictions on civil liberties and rights, censorship of the media and limited development of civil society. The negative side effect of authoritarian regimes is often the creation of undemocratic conditions that can lead to corruption, human rights abuses and difficulties in economic development.
5. Special educational needs:
This concept encompasses a wide range of different disorders, with the emphasis on the educational needs of the child and the pedagogical aspect of impact. There are many children with specific learning difficulties and their place is in mainstream schools. Children with this pattern of perception (such as dyslexia, dysgraphia, autism, hyperactivity, attention deficit) are not intellectually different from others and should not be treated as inferior, disabled or sick.
SEN may be experienced by children who have a variety of learning difficulties due to:
- Sensory impairment (visual impairment or hearing impairment);
- Physical disabilities;
- Mental retardation;
- Speech-language impairment;
- Specific learning difficulties;
- Emotional or behavioural difficulties;
- Communication and communication disorders;
- Chronic illnesses that lead to SEN;
- Multiple disabilities.